However, there are also several methodological limitations in the existing evidence.As acknowledged by Kivimäki and his co-workers (6), additional studies with more sophisticated assessment strategies are needed to develop a more complete picture of the role of work stress in the evolution of an illness.The second paper, a systematic review and meta-analysis on work stress in the etiology of coronary heart disease (CHD) by Kivimäki and his colleagues (6), found 11 independent studies examining the job-strain model, four studies examining the model for effort–reward imbalance, and two studies examining the organizational injustice model.Tags: Ku Honors Program EssayEmerson Culture EssayStarting An Essay With A VerbForest And Its Uses EssayThree Essays On PicturesqueSuccession Planning In Family BusinessResearch Proposal Presentation Example
Therefore, perceived control over worktimes may reduce health problems that derive from work stress and also from stress due to conflicting demands from paid and domestic work.
Indeed, high employee worktime control has been shown to predict good subjective health and less sickness absence and to be associated with reduced stress-related absenteeism (14, 15).
At the same time, job and work security have decreased.
Moreover, work and family life have become blended.
It is now generally recognized that, as a result of these developments, work-related stress has become a major public health problem with serious consequences for the individual, companies, and society.
Although the concept of stress is very popular, both in the academic world and in the everyday world, it has been difficult to agree on the exact scientific definition.The most striking development is the changing nature of work itself—from physical to mental.Another major development is that the significance of time and time-related activities in work has increased.He emphasizes the following four developments: increased internationalization and competition, increased utilization of information and communication technology, the changing configuration of the workforce, and flexibility and new organizational practices.He concludes that new systems of work organization have become more prevalent, but do no not represent a radical change across the whole economy, and that their effects (good or bad) depend on their design, implementation, and management.Interestingly, the associations between long domestic, commuting, and total workhours and subsequent morbidity have been found to be attenuated in combination with high control over workhours (16).This is an important finding, as it suggests that providing employees with control over worktimes may promote both employee health and a successful combination of full-time paid work and domestic responsibilities.Furthermore, due to the systematic intensification of work, the psychosocial workload has increased.Accordingly, today, for many employees, work poses primarily mental and emotional demands.The changes in worklife have also increased the flexibility and diversity of workhours.A review on the association between workhours and health in this issue (8) suggests that night work and shift work are related to a wide range of health effects, the evidence for the risk of cardiovascular morbidity being the strongest.