It is also preferred that students not refer to themselves in the third person.
Please note that Ashford University APA guidelines require title pages to include the course instructor's name and date.
"I", "we", "our" should only be used rarely in a research document.
The writing needs to be objective and impersonal and in the third person unless otherwise stated in the assignment guidelines.
For student papers that are not being submitted for publication—including theses—author notes are generally not necessary. It is the second page of the manuscript and is headed with the word Abstract. The abstract presents the research question, a summary of the method, the basic results, and the most important conclusions.
Because the abstract is usually limited to about 200 words, it can be a challenge to write a good one.As we have already seen, the authors are listed in an order that reflects their contribution to the research.When multiple authors have made equal contributions to the research, they often list their names alphabetically or in a randomly determined order.In some areas of psychology, the titles of many empirical research reports are informal in a way that is perhaps best described as “cute.” They usually take the form of a play on words or a well-known expression that relates to the topic under study.Here are some examples from recent issues of the Journal Psychological Science.An APA-style research report begins with a title page.The title is centred in the upper half of the page, with each important word capitalized.At the end of the meeting, the friend’s mother was asked whether she had any questions.She replied that she only had one question: “Should I tip? 3) Although both humour and personal anecdotes are generally discouraged in APA-style writing, this example is a highly effective way to start because it both engages the reader and provides an excellent real-world example of the topic under study.191) The following would be much better: The individual who holds two beliefs that are inconsistent with one another may feel uncomfortable. Giving readers a clear sense of what the research is about and why they should care about it will motivate them to continue reading the literature review—and will help them make sense of it.For example, the person who knows that he or she enjoys smoking but believes it to be unhealthy may experience discomfort arising from the inconsistency or disharmony between these two thoughts or cognitions. Breaking the Rules Researcher Larry Jacoby reported several studies showing that a word that people see or hear repeatedly can seem more familiar even when they do not recall the repetitions—and that this tendency is especially pronounced among older adults.