Several code-based equations exist today for design of the minimum transverse reinforcement required in the potential plastic hinge region of prestressed concrete piles.
However, the reinforcement requirements of these equations differ drastically in some cases by as much as a factor of three.
The skin friction of pile is found as a parameter of pile shaft displacement.
It will not be a simple/constant values for each type of soil/weathered rock.
This paper presents design and construction aspects of two similar circular Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) impoundment basins in deep soft clays.
Each basin has a design spill containment volume of 70,630 cubic feet.The inside diameter of each basin is 60 ft; bottom of the excavation is 32 ft below grade and the excavation retained permanently by concrete secant pile walls.The circular wall is constructed of 3 ft nominal diameter concrete piles overlapping adjacent piles by 6 in; the wall penetrates 60 ft below grade.Furthermore, there is no expectation for the ductility capacity of prestressed pile sections in seismic regions, nor do the code-based equations allow the designer to account for a desired ductility when determining the minimum confinement reinforcement in prestressed concrete piles.For this reason, a rational study presented in this report was undertaken to develop an equation that ...Pile load test data shows skin friction grows to maximum strength at certain displacement and then reduces to residual strength.Due to this property, the main active skin friction zone is shifted downwards with the increase of load.This research is applied to a case study of the Apollo 12 landing, in which the blowing soil peppered the nearby Surveyor III spacecraft producing measurable surface damage, and to the Apollo 15 landing, in which the Lunar Module tilted backwards after landing in a crater that was obscured from sight by the blowing dust.The modeling coupled with empirical observations is generally adequate to ...Excavation stability during construction is the primary concern in soft clays; an inadequate ...The importance of vibration problems induced by pile driving is addressed and guidelines for establishing limiting vibration levels with respect to buildings with different foundation conditions are presented.