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Among the most important contributors to the theory, however, is Ronald Clarke.
Finally, a last technique is the simple denial of benefits. Ink tags, used in resale, follow a similar objective: if tampered with, they release irremovable ink on the clothing, denying to the shoplifters the opportunity of wearing or selling the stolen article. The fifth category focuses on the fact that most offenders try to rationalize their acts by neutralizing the outcomes and thus seeks to remove such ability to make excuses.
This category looks at the emotional side of crime - by reducing provocations, people will be less likely to engage in crime. It can be achieved through the following five techniques.
Prevention techniques are thus aimed at decreasing the number of suitable victims and increasing the presence of control and guardian at all times.
Crime prevention, or the intervention to prevent a crime from occurring, can be achieved in two ways: by changing the offender’s disposition or by reducing his or her opportunities.
Another technique used is the disruption of markets of stolen/illegal goods.
Monitoring streets vendors and pawn shops is done in the view of reducing the influence of the benefits gained through the sales of illegally obtained products.
Clarke summarizes it as the science and art of decreasing the amount of opportunities for crime using “measures directed at highly specific forms of crime that involve the management, design, or manipulation of the immediate environment in as systematic and permanent way” (Clarke, 195), an approach found to be much easier than to seek to reform the offenders themselves.
The foundation of the situational crime concept relies on the assumptions that more opportunities lead to more crime, easier ones attract more offenders, and such existence of easy opportunities makes possible for a “life of crime.” The central concepts of the situational crime prevention theory are deeply rooted in and influenced by other theories, including the rational choice theory, the routine activity theory, and the crime pattern theory (Clarke and Felson, 1993; Felson, 1994).
It is likely that with time and new technologies becoming available to researchers, the list will keep on expanding.
The latest classification of the twenty-five techniques of situational prevention aims to reduce opportunities and is categorized under five areas.