To solve water scarcity, the MWI has been exploring different solutions, focusing mainly on increasing the water supply, but also on reducing the demand, including water conservation campaigns.This article examines the water awareness campaigns of the MWI, and it argues that the MWI’s water awareness campaigns use two specific security discourses to legitimate both state ownership over water and interventions in people’s daily water practices.The first type of discourse guiding these campaigns, which we label the “state insecurity” discourse, asserts that implementing rationing policies on Jordan’s domestic water supply leads to protests and political instability, responses that create a security threat to the state itself.
To solve water scarcity, the MWI has been exploring different solutions, focusing mainly on increasing the water supply, but also on reducing the demand, including water conservation campaigns.This article examines the water awareness campaigns of the MWI, and it argues that the MWI’s water awareness campaigns use two specific security discourses to legitimate both state ownership over water and interventions in people’s daily water practices.The first type of discourse guiding these campaigns, which we label the “state insecurity” discourse, asserts that implementing rationing policies on Jordan’s domestic water supply leads to protests and political instability, responses that create a security threat to the state itself.Tags: Essays On MurderArgumentative Essays On Gun ControlSynthesising TheAgriculture Business Plan SampleDiscrimination Gay Marriage EssayPoverty In Michigan EssayMsc Economics DissertationUndergraduate Literature ReviewHarvard Mba Essays
To avoid such unrest, as well as to avoid employing unpopular water supply reduction techniques, the MWI and its international partners sought to change the view that water conservation was not a viable means to alleviate Jordan’s water crisis because it forced average Jordanians to accept a reduced domestic water supply.
Regularly supplementing one’s reduced access to public water with purchased water was to many a form of luxury only financially feasible for a small portion of society; thus, water conservation, when viewed as a reduction in domestic water supply, was viewed as a form of luxury as well [1,6].
Prior to the influxes of refugees that would begin with the Palestine War () of 1948, the population of the Jordan Valley met its needs through rain-fed agriculture, and so were largely dependent on seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and river flows.
Because of the limited size of this population and its distribution across Jordan, there was no need to extract or redirect large portions of water across Jordan’s landscape.
Jordan is said to be among the most water-scarce countries in the world; according to the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI), Jordan is the second most water scarce country worldwide.
The reasons behind water scarcity are natural (i.e., climate change and insufficient precipitation), political (i.e., transboundary nature of most of the surface water resources in the country), infrastructural (i.e., high rate of non-revenue water (NRW), illegal connections, and physical leakages and losses), and social (i.e., increasing demand due to a growing population and in-migration of refugees).Interviews with MWI officials and civil society workers revealed that public misgivings about water conservation and supply reduction were two of the main reasons why the MWI decided to engage in outreach campaigns [1,2,3].In fact, the MWI realized that it is necessary to improve communication and outreach to the broader population in order to better explain why it is important to conserve water, showing also the work that the MWI is and has been doing to ensure water security in the country.In fact, water conservation policies, such as raising awareness to change the behavior of citizens and convince them to use less water in their daily water practices, would decrease the overall water demand and would be a cheaper solution than increasing the supply through the construction of costly desalination plants or through other infrastructural projects.It is obvious that conservation campaigns are part of the overall solution, which would need to be adopted together with other solutions.It was the first influx of Palestinian refugees resulting from the 1948 that sufficiently attracted the attention of the international community to begin large scale development of the Jordanian water sector.The 1948 influx of Palestinian refugees into Jordan forged together three key elements that shape Jordan’s development of water resources up to the present: the demographic pressures of refugee populations, resulting concerns over the sufficiency of Jordan’s water resources, and the role of international development aid in stabilizing Jordan against the potential of these two interrelated factors to threaten the state’s security.The MWI has worked both internally and within the public sphere to eliminate this notion, and to rearticulate its role in securing water for its citizens as a role of knowledge sharing and water conservation education.Relatedly, the idea of luxury is most likely a function of the impacts of water rationing on the Jordanian public since this policy was initiated in the 1960s .The aim of this paper, therefore, is to shed light on how a government faced with a severe national water crisis “secures” a more water-conscious citizen using the two security discourses introduced above. The first introductory section presents a background on the responses to the government’s previous supply reduction policies and assessments of water security threats.The second section describes the conceptual basis underpinning the study. The fourth follows by examining how the Jordanian government is shaping individuals’ water conservation behaviors in the context of education, religious observance, and legal and financial regimes of responsibility. This section analyses public perspectives on water conservation and previous responses to policies of supply reduction as two key factors in the government assessment of Jordan’s water conservation awareness programs within the MWI’s water strategy.