The process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts (chloro = green; plasti = formed, molded), specifically using chlorophyll (phyll = leaf), the green pigment involved in photosynthesis.
As early as 1640, people have demonstrated that photosynthesis was a means of converting carbon dioxide in the air into plant material.
Actually, plants reserve very little of the glucose for immediate use.
Glucose molecules are combined by dehydration synthesis to form cellulose, which is used as a structural material.
Pigments and protein involved with this actual primary electron transfer event together are called the reaction center.
A large number of pigment molecules (100-5000), collectively referred to as antenna, "harvest" light and transfer the light energy to the same reaction center.Photosynthesis reduces carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, \[\ce\] Thus, both electrons and energy are required.The electrons come from water molecules, and the energy is first absorbed by pigments known as chlorophylls and carotenoids.The former absorb blue (wavelength 430 nm) and red (wavelength 670 nm) light and the later absorbe blue-green light (wavelenghts between 400 and 500 nm). Reflection of these types of light makes plants appear green. They are bonded to proteins which provide pigment molecules with the appropriate orientation and position with respect to each other.After absorption by pigment, light energy is transferred to chlorophylls that are bonded to special proteins.Oxygen is also produced by the plant in this cycle, which is then let off into the air!Have you noticed how clean and pure the air feels when there are plants around? The sun(light energy), water, minerals and carbon dioxide are all absorbed by the plant.The plant then uses them to make glucose/sugar, which is the energy/food for the plant.Even books and journals are introduced in this link.The photosynthesis is a very complicated process, and we can only give an introduction here.